Referenties:

Pennings, E. J. M., Eilering, J.B.G., & de Wolff, F. A. 2004, Langetermijneffecten van XTC., Leids Universiteir Medisch Centrum, Leiden. [Full_text pdf]

[1]. Green AR, Mechan AO, Elliott JM, O’Shea E, Colado MI. The pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”). Pharmacol Rev  2003;55:463-508.[Abstract][Full text]

[2]. Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Ferri M, Zambelli U, Timpano M, Neri E, Marzocchi GF, Delsignore R, Brambilla F. Long-lasting effects of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) on  serotonin system function in humans. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:127-136. [Abstract]

[3]. Reneman L, Booij J, de Bruin K, Reitsma JB, de Wolff FA, Gunning WB, den Heeten GJ, van Den BW. Effects of dose, sex, and long-term abstention from use on toxic effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on brain serotonin neurons. Lancet 2001;358:1864-1869. [Abstract]

[4]. Kish SJ. How strong is the evidence that brain serotonin neurons are damaged in human users of ecstasy? Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;71:845-855. [Abstract]

[5]. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Daumann J, Sass H. [Chronic neurotoxic damage in ecstasy (MDMA) users. Review of the current state of research]. Nervenarzt 2002;73:405-421. [Abstract]

[6]. Lieb R, Schuetz CG, Pfister H, von Sydow K, Wittchen H. Mental disorders in ecstasy users: a prospective-longitudinal investigation. Drug Alcohol Depend 2002;68:195-207. [Abstract]

[7]. Verbaten MN. Specific memory deficits in ecstasy users? The results of a meta-analysis. Hum Psychopharmacol 2003;18:281-290. [Abstract]

[8]. Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Becker S, Pelz S, Tuchtenhagen F, Daumann J. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in recreational ecstasy (MDMA) users: is it ecstasy or cannabis? Biol Psychiatry 2002;51:766-769. [Abstract]

[9]. Croft RJ, Mackay AJ, Mills AT, Gruzelier JG. The relative contributions of ecstasy and cannabis to cognitive impairment. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;153:373-379. [Abstract]

[10]. Parrott A. Cognitive deficits and cognitive normality in recreational cannabis and Ecstasy (MDMA) users. Hum Psychopharmacol 2003;18:89-90. [Abstract]

[11]. Simon NG, Mattick RP. The impact of regular ecstacy use on memory function. Addiction 2003;97:1523-1529. [Abstract]

[12] Cole, J., Sumnall, H., & Grob, C. 2002, "Sorted: Ecstasy facts and fictions.", The Psychologist, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 464-467. [Abstract] [Commentaar] [Full text pdf]

[12]  Cole, J., Sumnall, H. The preclinical behavioural pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA). Neurosci Biobeh Rev 2003; 27:199-217. [Abstract]

[13] Ricaurte G, Bryan G, Strauss L, Seiden L, Schuster C. Hallucinogenic amphetamine selectively destroys brain serotonin nerve terminals. Science 1985;229:986-988. [Abstract]

[14] Schmidt CJ, Wu L, Lovenberg W. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a potentially neurotoxic amphetamine analogue. Eur J Pharmacol 1986;124:175-178. [Abstract]

[15] Stone DM, Stahl DC, Hanson GR, Gibb JW. The efects of 3,4-methylenedioxy­methamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4- methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) on monoaminergic systems in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol 1986;128:41-48. [Abstract]

[16] Battaglia G, Yeh SY, O’Hearn E, Molliver ME, Kuhar MJ, De Souza EB. 3,4-Methylenedioxy­methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine destroy serotonin terminals in rat brain: quantification of neurodegeneration by measurement of [3H]paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987;242:91 1-9 16. [Abstract]

[17] Stone DM, Merchant KM, Hanson GR, Gibb JW. Immediate and long-term efects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on serotonin pathways in brain of rat. Neuropharmacology 1 987;26: 1677-1683. [Abstract]

[18] Schmidt CJ. Neurotoxicity of the psychedelic amphetamine, methylenedioxy­methamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987;240:1-7. [Abstract]

[19] Commins DL, Vosmer G, Virus RM, Woolverton WL, Schuster CR, Seiden LS. Biochemical and histological evidence that methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) is toxic to neurons in the rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987;241:338-345. [Abstract]

[20] O’Hearn E, Battaglia G, De Souza EB, Kuhar MJ, Molliver ME. Methylenedioxyamphe­tamine (MDA) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) cause selective ablation of serotonergic axon terminals in forebrain: immunocytochemical evidence for neurotoxicity. J Neurosci 1988;8:2788-2803. [Abstract]

[21] Konijn KZ, Pennings EJM, de Wolf FA. XTC: klinische en toxicologische aspecten. Leiden: Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum, 1997. [Abstract]

[22] Ricaurte GA, Yuan J, McCann UD. (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") induced serotonin neurotoxicity: studies in animals. Neuropsychobiology 2000; 42: 5-10. [Abstract]

[23] Lyles J, Cadet JL. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) neurotoxicity: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2003;42: 155-168. [Abstract]

[24] Schefel U, Szabo Z, Mathews WB, Finley PA, Dannals RF, Ravert HT, Szabo K, Yuan J, Ricaurte GA. In vivo detection of short- and long-term MDMA neurotoxicity--a positron emission tomography study in the living baboon brain. Synapse 1998;29: 183-192. [Abstract]

[25] Stone DM, Johnson M, Hanson GR, Gibb JW. Role of endogenous dopamine in the central serotonergic deficits induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1988;247:79-87. [Abstract]

[26] Ricaurte GA, Forno LS, Wilson MA, DeLanney LE, Irwin I, Molliver ME, Langston JW. (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine selectively damages central serotonergic neurons in nonhuman primates. JAMA 1988;260:5 1-55. [Abstract]

[27] Scanzello CR, Hatzidimitriou G, Martello AL, Katz JL, Ricaurte GA. Serotonergic recovery after (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine injury: observations in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993;264:1484-1491. [Abstract]

[28] Fischer C, Hatzidimitriou G, Wlos J, Katz J, Ricaurte G. Reorganization of ascending 5-HT axon projections in animals previously exposed to the recreational drug (+/-)3,4-methylene­dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”). J Neurosci 1995;1 5:5476-5485. [Abstract]

[29] Hatzidimitriou G, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA. Altered serotonin innervation patterns in the forebrain of monkeys treated with (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine seven years previously: factors influencing abnormal recovery. J Neurosci 1999;19:5096-5 107. [Abstract]

[30]. Hatzidimitriou G, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA. Altered serotonin innervation patterns in the forebrain of monkeys treated with (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine seven years previously: factors influencing abnormal recovery. J Neurosci 1999;19:5096-5107. [Abstract]

[31]. Sprague JE, Everman SL, Nichols DE. An integrated hypothesis for the serotonergic axonal loss induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Neurotoxicology 1998;19:427-441. [Abstract]

[32]. Malberg JE, Seiden LS. Small changes in ambient temperature cause large changes in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced serotonin neurotoxicity and core body temperature in the rat. J Neurosci 1998;18:5086-5094 [Abstract] [full text].

[33]. O’Shea E, Granados R, Esteban B, Colado MI, Green AR. The relationship between the degree of neurodegeneration of rat brain 5-HT nerve terminals and the dose and frequency of administration of MDMA (‘ecstasy’). Neuropharmacology 1998;37:919-926 [Abstract].

[34]. Sprague JE, Banks ML, Cook VJ, Mills EM. Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and sympathetic nervous system involvement in hyperthermia induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;305:159-166 [Abstract] [full text].

[35]. Malberg JE, Sabol KE, Seiden LS. Co-administration of MDMA with drugs that protect against MDMA neurotoxicity produces different effects on body temperature in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1996;278:258-267. [Abstract]

[36]. Darvesh AS, Shankaran M, Gudelsky GA. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine produces glycogenolysis and increases the extracellular concentration of glucose in the rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002;300:138-144. [Abstract]

[37]. Huether G, Zhou D, Ruther E. Causes and consequences of the loss of serotonergic presynapses elicited by the consumption of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) and its congeners. J Neural Transm 1997;104:771-794. [Abstract]

[38]. Mechan AO, Esteban B, O’Shea E, Elliott JM, Colado MI, Green AR. The pharmacology of the acute hyperthermic response that follows administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) to rats. Br J Pharmacol 2002;135:170-180. [Abstract]

[39]. Ricaurte GA, Yuan J, Hatzidimitriou G, Cord BJ, McCann UD. Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (“ecstasy”). Science 2002;297:2260-2263. [Abstract]

[40]. Ricaurte GA, Yuan J, Hatzidimitriou G, Cord BJ, McCann UD. Retraction. Science 2003;301: 1479. [Abstract]

[41]. Green AR, Cross AJ, Goodwin GM. Review of the pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “Ecstasy”). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1995;119:247-260. [Abstract]

[42]. Colado MI, Camarero J, Mechan AO, Sanchez V, Esteban B, Elliott JM, Green AR. A study of the mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic action of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) on dopamine neurones in mouse brain. Br J Pharmacol 2001;134: 1711-1723. [Abstract]

[43]. Slikker W, Jr., Ali SF, Scallet AC, Frith CH, Newport GD, Bailey JR. Neurochemical and neurohistological alterations in the rat and monkey produced by orally administered methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1988;94:448-457. [Abstract]

[44]. Insel TR, Battaglia G, Johannessen JN, Marra S, De Souza EB. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) selectively destroys brain serotonin terminals in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1989;249:713-720. [Abstract]

[45]. Ricaurte GA, Martello AL, Katz JL, Martello MB. Lasting effects of (+-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on central serotonergic neurons in nonhuman primates: neurochemical observations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992;261:616-622. [Abstract]

[46] Reneman L, Booij J, Majoie CB, van Den BW, den Heeten GJ. Investigating the potential neurotoxicity of Ecstasy (MDMA): an imaging approach. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001 ;16: 579-588. [Abstract]

[47] McCann UD, Slate SO, Ricaurte GA. Adverse reactions with 3,4-methylenedioxymeth­amphetamine (MDMA; ‘ecstasy’). Drug Saf 1996;15:107-115. [Abstract]

[48] Ricaurte GA, Finnegan KT, Irwin I, Langston JW. Aminergic metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid of humans previously exposed to MDMA: preliminary observations. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;600:699-708. [Geen Abstract]

[49] McCann UD, Ridenour A, Shaham Y, Ricaurte GA. Serotonin neurotoxicity after (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy”): a controlled study in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 1994;10:129-138. [Abstract]

[50] Bolla KI, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA. Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA (“Ecstasy”) users. Neurology 1998;51:1532-1537. [Abstract]

[51] McCann UD, Mertl M, Eligulashvili V, Ricaurte GA. Cognitive performance in (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) users: a controlled study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;143:417-425. [Abstract[

[52] Jimerson DC, Wolfe BE, Metzger ED, Finkelstein DM, Cooper TB, Levine JM. Decreased serotonin function in bulimia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54:529-534. [Abstract]

[53] Price LH, Ricaurte GA, Krystal JH, Heninger GR. Neuroendocrine and mood responses to intravenous L-tryptophan in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) users. Preliminary observations. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989;46:20-22. [Abstract]

[54] Verkes RJ, Gijsman HJ, Pieters MS, Schoemaker RC, de Visser S, Kuijpers M, Pennings EJ, de Bruin D, Van de WG, Van Gerven JM, Cohen AF. Cognitive performance and serotonergic function in users of ecstasy. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;153:196-202. [Abstract]

[55] McCann UD, Eligulashvili V, Mertl M, Murphy DL, Ricaurte GA. Altered neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to m-chlorophenylpiperazine in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;147:56-65. [Abstract]

[56] Zhou FC, Tao-Cheng JH, Segu L, Patel T, Wang Y. Serotonin transporters are located on the axons beyond the synaptic junctions: anatomical and functional evidence. Brain Res 1998;805: 241-254. [Abstract]

[57] Reneman L, Booij J, Habraken JB, de Bruin K, Hatzidimitriou G, den Heeten GJ, Ricaurte GA. Validity of [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in detecting MDMA-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity. Synapse 2002;46:199-205. [Abstract]

[58] McCann UD, Szabo Z, Schefel U, Dannals RF, Ricaurte GA. Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic efect of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) on brain serotonin neurons in human beings. Lancet 1998;352: 1433-1437. [Abstract]

[59] Buchert R, Thomasius R, Nebeling B, Petersen K, Obrocki J, Jenicke L, Wilke F, Wartberg L, Zapletalova P, Clausen M. Long-term efects of “ecstasy” use on serotonin transporters of the brain investigated by PET. J Nucl Med 2003;44:375-384. [Abstract]

[60] Thomasius R, Petersen K, Buchert R, Andresen B, Zapletalova P, Wartberg L, Nebeling B, Schmoldt A. Mood, cognition and serotonin transporter availability in current and former ecstasy (MDMA) users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2003;167:85-96. [Abstract]

[61] Parrott AC. Human research on MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) neurotoxicity: cognitive and behavioural indices of change. Neuropsychobiology 2000;42: 17-24. [Abstract]

[62] Parrott AC. Human psychopharmacology of Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of 15 years of empirical research. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:557-577. [Abstract]

[63] Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O’Carroll RE, Johnstone EC. Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) users. Br J Psychiatry 1999;175:63-69. [Abstract]

[64] Heinz A, Jones DW. Serotonin transporters in ecstasy users. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 176:193-195. [Abstract] [Full text]

[65] Reneman L, Lavalaye J, Schmand B, de Wolf FA, van Den BW, den Heeten GJ, Booij J. Cortical serotonin transporter density and verbal memory in individuals who stopped using 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”): preliminary findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:901-906. [Abstract]

[66] Liechti ME, Gamma A, Vollenweider FX. Gender diferences in the subjective efects of MDMA. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;154:161-168. [Abstract]

[67] Verheyden SL, Hadfield J, Calin T, Curran HV. Sub-acute efects of MDMA (+/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, “ecstasy”) on mood: evidence of gender diferences. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002; 161:23-31. [Abstract]

[68] Little KY, McLaughlin DP, Zhang L, Livermore CS, Dalack GW, McFinton PR, DelProposto ZS, Hill E, Cassin BJ, Watson SJ, Cook EH. Cocaine, ethanol, and genotype efects on human midbrain serotonin transporter binding sites and mRNA levels. Am J Psychiatry 1998; 155: 207-213. [Abstract]

[69] Mash DC, Staley JK, Izenwasser S, Basile M, Ruttenber AJ. Serotonin transporters upregulate with chronic cocaine use. J Chem Neuroanat 2000;20:271-280. [Abstract]

[70] Jacobsen LK, Staley JK, Malison RT, Zoghbi SS, Seibyl JP, Kosten TR, Innis RB. Elevated central serotonin transporter binding availability in acutely abstinent cocaine-dependent patients. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:1134-1140. [Abstract]

[71] Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Franceschi D, Sedler M, Gatley SJ, Miller E, Hitzemann R, Ding YS, Logan J. Loss of dopamine transporters in methamphetamine abusers recovers with protracted abstinence. J Neurosci 2001;21:9414-9418. [Abstract]

[72] Mann JJ, Huang YY, Underwood MD, Kassir SA, Oppenheim S, Kelly TM, Dwork AJ, Arango V. A serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and prefrontal cortical binding in major depression and suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:729-738. [Abstract]

[73] Bethea CL, Pecins-Thompson M, Schutzer WE, Gundlah C, Lu ZN. Ovarian steroids and serotonin neural function. Mol Neurobiol 1998;18:87-123. [Abstract]

[74] Lesch KP, Bengel D, Heils A, Sabol SZ, Greenberg BD, Petri S, Benjamin J, Muller CR, Hamer DH, Murphy DL. Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 1 996;274: 1527-1531. [Abstract]

[75] Farde L, Halldin C, Muller L, Suhara T, Karlsson P, Hall H. PET study of [11C] beta-CIT binding to monoamine transporters in the monkey and human brain. Synapse 1994;16:93-103. [Abstract]

[76] Laruelle M, Baldwin RM, Innis RB. SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters in nonhuman primate brain. NIDA Res Monogr 1994;138:131-159. [Abstract]

[77] Pirker W, Asenbaum S, Kasper S, Walter H, Angelberger P, Koch G, Pozzera A, Deecke L, Podreka I, Brucke T. beta-CIT SPECT demonstrates blockade of 5HT-uptake sites by citalopram in the human brain in vivo. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 1995;100:247-256. [Abstract]

[78] Laruelle M, Baldwin RM, Malison RT, Zea-Ponce Y, Zoghbi SS, al Tikriti MS, Sybirska EH, Zimmermann RC, Wisniewski G, Neumeyer JL. SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with [123I] beta-CIT: pharmacological characterization of brain uptake in nonhuman primates. Synapse 1993;13:295-309. [Abstract]

[79] Tauscher J, Pirker W, de Zwaan M, Asenbaum S, Brucke T, Kasper S. In vivo visualization of serotonin transporters in the human brain during fluoxetine treatment. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1999;9: 177-179. [Abstract]

[80] Reneman L, Booij J, Lavalaye J, de Bruin K, Reitsma JB, Gunning B, den Heeten GJ, van Den BW. Use of amphetamine by recreational users of ecstasy (MDMA) is associated with reduced striatal dopamine transporter densities: a [123I] beta-CIT SPECT study--preliminary report. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;159:335-340. [Abstract]

[81] Parsey RV, Kegeles LS, Hwang DR, Simpson N, Abi-Dargham A, Mawlawi O, Slifstein M, Van Heertum RL, Mann JJ, Laruelle M. In vivo quantification of brain serotonin transporters in humans using [11C]McN 5652. J Nucl Med 2000;41:146-147. [Abstract]

[82] Buck A, Gucker PM, Schonbachler RD, Arigoni M, Kneifel S, Vollenweider FX, Ametamey SM, Burger C. Evaluation of serotonergic transporters using PET and [11C] (+)McN-5652: assessment of methods. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2000;20:253-262. [Abstract]

[83] Chang L, Grob CS, Ernst T, Itti L, Mishkin FS, Jose-Melchor R, Poland RE. Efect of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] on cerebral blood flow: a co-registered SPECT and MRI study. Psychiatry Res 2000;98: 15-28. [Abstract]

[84] Reneman L, Majoie CB, Habraken JB, den Heeten GJ. Efects of ecstasy (MDMA) on the brain in abstinent users: initial observations with difusion and perfusion MR imaging. Radiology 2001;220:611-617. [Abstract] [Full text]

[85] Gamma A, Buck A, Berthold T, Vollenweider FX. No difference in brain activation during cognitive performance between ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users and control subjects: a [H215O]-positron emission tomography study. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2001 ;21 :66-71. [Abstract]

[86] Howe FA, Maxwell RJ, Saunders DE, Brown MM, Grifiths JR. Proton spectroscopy in vivo. Magn Reson Q 1993;9:31-59. [Abstract]

[87] Urenjak J, Williams SR, Gadian DG, Noble M. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously identifies diferent neural cell types. J Neurosci 1993;13:981-989. [Abstract]

[88] Poblete JC, Azmitia EC. Activation of glycogen phosphorylase by serotonin and 3,4-methylene­dioxymethamphetamine in astroglial-rich primary cultures: involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor. Brain Res 1995;680:9-15. [Abstract]

[89] Chang L, Ernst T, Grob CS, Poland RE. Cerebral 1H MRS alterations in recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) users. J Magn Reson Imaging 1999;10:521-526. [Abstract]

[90] Reneman L, Majoie CB, Schmand B, van Den BW, den Heeten GJ. Prefrontal N-acetylaspartate is strongly associated with memory performance in (abstinent) ecstasy users: preliminary report. Biol Psychiatry 2001;50:550-554. [Abstract]

[91] Reneman L, Majoie CB, Flick H, den Heeten GJ. Reduced N-acetylaspartate levels in the frontal cortex of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) users: preliminary results. Am J Neuroradiol 2002;23:231-237. [Abstract][Full text]

[92] Schreckenberger M, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Sabri O, Arning C, Zimny M, Zeggel T, Wagenknecht G, Kaiser HJ, Sass H, Buell U. “Ecstasy”-induced changes of cerebral glucose metabolism and their correlation to acute psychopathology. An 1 8-FDG PET study. Eur J Nucl Med 1999;26:1572-1579. [Abstract]

[93] Obrocki J, Buchert R, Vaterlein O, Thomasius R, Beyer W, Schiemann T. Ecstasy--long-term efects on the human central nervous system revealed by positron emission tomography. Br J Psychiatry 1999;175:186-188. [Abstract]

[94] Buchert R, Obrocki J, THomasius R, Vaterlein O, Petersen K, Jenicke L, Bohuslavizki KH, Clausen M. Long-term efects of ‘ecstasy’ abuse on the human brain studied by FDG PET. Nucl Med Commun 2001;22:889-897. [Abstract]

[95] Reneman L, Endert E, de Bruin K, Lavalaye J, Feenstra MG, de Wolf FA, Booij J. The acute and chronic efects of MDMA (“ecstasy”) on cortical 5-HT2A receptors in rat and human brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002;26:387-396. [Abstract]

[96] Schefel U, Dannals RF, Cline EJ, Ricaurte GA, Carroll FI, Abraham P, Lewin AH, Kuhar MJ. RTI-55, an in vivo label for the serotonin transporter. Synapse 1992; 11:134-139. [Abstract]

[97] Hegadoren KM, Baker GB, Bourin M. 3,4-Methylenedioxy analogues of amphetamine: defining the risks to humans. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1999;23:539-553. [Abstract]

[98] Dafters RI, Dufy F, O’Donnell PJ, Bouquet C. Level of use of 3,4-methylenedioxy­methamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) in humans correlates with EEG power and coherence. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;145:82-90. [Abstract]

[99] Gamma A, Frei E, Lehmann D, Pascual-Marqui RD, Hell D, Vollenweider FX. Mood state and brain electric activity in ecstasy users. Neuroreport 2000;11:157-162. [Abstract]

[100] Morgan MJ. Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of its possible persistent psychological efects. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000;152:230-248. [Abstract]

[101] Wareing M, Fisk JE, Murphy PN. Working memory deficits in current and previous users of MDMA (‘ecstasy’). Br J Psychol 2000;91 (Pt 2):181-188. [Abstract]

[102] Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Daumann J, Tuchtenhagen F, Pelz S, Becker S, Kunert HJ, Fimm B, Sass H. Impaired cognitive performance in drug free users of recreational ecstasy (MDMA). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:719-725. [Abstract] [Full text]

[103] Gamma A, Buck A, Berthold T, Liechti ME, Vollenweider FX. 3,4-Methylenedioxy­methamphetamine (MDMA) modulates cortical and limbic brain activity as measured by [H215O]-PET in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;23:388-395. [Abstract]

[104] McCann UD, Eligulashvili V, Ricaurte GA. (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘Ecstasy’) -induced serotonin neurotoxicity: clinical studies. Neuropsychobiology 2000;42: 11-16. [Abstract]

[105] Allen RP, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA. Persistent effects of (=/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) on human sleep. Sleep 1993; 16: 560-564. [Abstract]

[106] Jones BE. Thee organization of central cholinergic systems and their functional importance in sleep-waking states. Prog Brain Res 1993;98:61-71. [Abstract]

[107] Geller I, Hartmann RJ, Croy DJ, Haber B. Attenuation of conflict behavior with cinanserin, a serotonin antagonist: reversal of the efect with 5-hydroxytryptophan and alpha­methyltryptamine. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1974;7: 165-174. [Abstract]

[108] Grifiths WJ, Lester BK, Coulter JD, Williams HL. Tryptophan and sleep in young adults. Psychophysiology 1972;9:345-356. [Abstract]

[109] Brown CC, Horrom NJ, Wagman AM. Efects of L-tryptophan on sleep onset insomniacs. Waking Sleeping 1979;3:101-108. [Abstract]

[110] Vollenweider FX, Gamma A, Liechti M, Huber T. Psychological and cardiovascular efects and short-term sequelae of MDMA (“ecstasy”) in MDMA-naive healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 1998;19:241-251. [Abstract]

[111] Verheyden SL, Henry JA, Curran HV. Acute, sub-acute and long-term subjective consequences of ‘ecstasy’ (MDMA) consumption in 430 regular users. Hum Psychopharmacol 2003; 18: 507-517. [Abstract]

[112] Liester MB, Grob CS, Bravo GL, Walsh RN. Phenomenology and sequelae of 3,4-methylene­dioxymethamphetamine use. J Nerv Ment Dis 1992; 180:345-352. [Abstract]

[113] Schifano F, Magni G. MDMA (“ecstasy”) abuse: psychopathological features and craving for chocolate: a case series. Biol Psychiatry 1994;36:763-767. [No Abstract]

[114] Bufum J, Moser C. MDMA and human sexual function. J Psychoactive Drugs 1986;18: 355-359. [No Abstract]

[115] Zemishlany Z, Aizenberg D, Weizman A. Subjective efects of MDMA (‘Ecstasy’) on human sexual function. Eur Psychiatry 2001 ;16:127-130. [Abstract]

[116] Parrott AC, Lasky J. Ecstasy (MDMA) efects upon mood and cognition: before, during and after a Saturday night dance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;139:261-268. [Abstract]

[117] Parrott AC, Lees A, Garnham NJ, Jones M, Wesnes K. Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA of ‘ecstasy’: evidence for memory deficits. J Psychopharmacol 1998; 12:79-83. [Abstract]

[118] Schifano F, Di Furia L, Forza G, Minicuci N, Bricolo R. MDMA (‘ecstasy’) consumption in the context of polydrug abuse: a report on 150 patients. Drug Alcohol Depend 1998;52:85-90. [Abstract]

[119] Reneman l, Booij J, Schmand B, van Den BW, Gunning B. Memory disturbances in “Ecstasy” users are correlated with an altered brain serotonin neurotransmission. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2000; 148: 322-324. [Abstract]

[120] Morgan MJ. Memory deficits associated with recreational use of “ecstasy” (MDMA). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1 999;141 :30-36. [Abstract]

[121] Klugman A, Hardy S, Baldeweg T, Gruzelier J. Toxic effect of MDMA on brain serotonin neurons. Lancet 1999;353:1269-1270. [No Abstract]

[122] Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Thimm B, Rezk M, Hensen G, Daumann J. Memory impairment suggests hippocampal dysfunction in abstinent ecstasy users. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003 ;27:819-827. [Abstract]

[123] Fox HC, McLean A, Turner JJ, Parrott AC, Rogers R, Sahakian BJ. Neuropsychological evidence of a relatively selective profile of temporal dysfunction in drug-free MDMA (“ecstasy”) polydrug users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;162:203-214. [Abstract]

[124] Heffernan TM, Ling J, Scholey AB. Subjective ratings of prospective memory deficits in MDMA (‘ecstasy’) users. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001;16:339-344. [Abstract]

[125] Heffernan TM, Jarvis H, Rodgers J, Scholey AB, Ling J. Prospective memory, everyday cognitive failure and central executive function in recreational users of Ecstasy. Hum Psychopharmacol 2001 ;16:607-612. [Abstract]

[126] Zakzanis KK, Young DA. Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA (“Ecstasy”) users: a longitudinal investigation. Neurology 2001 ;56:966-969. [Abstract]

[127] Morgan MJ. Recreational use of “ecstasy” (MDMA) is associated with elevated impulsivity. Neuropsychopharmacology 1998;19:252-264. [Abstract]

[128] Morgan MJ, McFie L, Fleetwood H, Robinson JA. Ecstasy (MDMA): are the psychological problems associated with its use reversed by prolonged abstinence? Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;159:294-303. [Abstract]

[129] Fox HC, Parrott AC, Turner JJ. Ecstasy use: cognitive deficits related to dosage rather than self-reported problematic use of the drug. J Psychopharmacol 2001 ;15:273-281. [Abstract]

[130] Zakzanis KK, Young DA. Executive function in abstinent MDMA (‘ecstasy’) users. Med Sci Monit 2001 ;7:1292-1298. [Abstract] [Full text]

[131] Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Scholey AB, Hefernan T, Ling J, Rodgers J. Ecstasy/MDMA attributed problems reported by novice, moderate and heavy recreational users. Hum Psychopharmacol 2002;17:309-312. [Abstract]

[132] McGuire P. Long term psychiatric and cognitive efects of MDMA use. Toxicol Lett 2000;112-113:153-156. [Abstract]

[133] Landasbo MA, Iraurgi I, Jimenez-Lerma JM, Calle R, Sanz J, Gutierrez-Fraile M. Ecstasy-induced psychotic disorder: six-month follow-up study. Eur. Addict Res 2002; 8: 133-140. [Abstract]

[134] Soar K, Turner JJ, Parrott AC. Psychiatric disorder in Acstasy (MDMA) users: a literature review focusing on personal predisposition and drug history. Hum Psychophatmacol 2001: 16: 641-645. [Abstract]

[135] Curran HV, Travill RA. Mood and cognitive effects of +/-3,4-methylenedioxy­methamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’): week-end ‘high’ followed by mid-week low. Addiction 1997;92:821-831. [Abstract]

[136] Parrott AC, Milani RM, Parmar R, Turner JD. Recreational ecstasy/MDMA and other drug users from the UK and Italy: psychiatric symptoms and psychobiological problems. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001; 159:77-82. [Abstract]

[137] Cole JC, Sumnall HR, Wagstaf GF. Methodological problems with ecstasy and the SCL-90. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002; 162:215-217. [No Abstract]

[138] Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Giucastro G, Maestri D, Monica C, Sartori R, Caccavari R, Delsignore R. Serotonergic function after (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘Ecstasy’) in humans. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 13:1-9. [Abstract]

[139] Tuchtenhagen F, Daumann J, Norra C, Gobbele R, Becker S, Pelz S, Sass H, Buchner H, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E. High intensity dependence of auditory evoked dipole source activity indicates decreased serotonergic activity in abstinent ecstasy (MDMA) users. Neuropsychopharmacology 2000;22:608-617. [Abstract]

[140] Parrott AC, Sisk E, Turner JJ. Psychobiological problems in heavy ‘ecstasy’ (MDMA) polydrug users. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000;60:105-1 10. [Abstract]

[141] Mordenti J, Chappell W. The use of interspecies scaling in toxicokinetics. In: Yacobi A, Kelly J, Batra V, eds., Toxicokinetics and new drug development. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989. [No Abstract]

[142] McCann UD, Ricaurte GA. Caveat emptor: editors beware. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001 ;24:333-336. [Geen Abstract]

[143] Vollenweider FX, Jones RT, Baggott MJ. Caveat emptor: editors beware. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001 ;24:461-463. [Geen Abstract]

[144] Bai F, Lau SS, Monks TJ. Glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates of alpha­methyldopamine produce serotonergic neurotoxicity: possible role in methylenedioxy­amphetamine-mediated neurotoxicity. Chem Res Toxicol 1999; 12:1150-1157. [Abstract]

[145] De la Torre R, Farre M, Ortuno J, Mas M, Brenneisen R, Roset PN, Segura J, Cami J. Non-linear pharmacokinetics of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000;49: 104- 109. [Abstract]

[146] Block RI, Erwin WJ, Ghoneim MM. Chronic drug use and cognitive impairments. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2002;73:491. [Abstract]

[147] Wilson JM, Levey AI, Rajput A, Ang L, Guttman M, Shannak K, Niznik HB, Hornykiewicz O, Pifl C, Kish SJ. Diferential changes in neurochemical markers of striatal dopamine nerve terminals in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1996;47:718-726. [Abstract]

[148] Green AR, Goodwin GM. Ecstasy and neurodegeneration. BMJ 1996;312:1493-1494. [Abstract]

[149] Hunter AJ. Serotonergic involvement in learning and memory. Biochem Soc Trans 1989: 17: 79-81. [Abstract]

Extra Referenties:

FAQ 1 Rost van Tonningen-Van Driel, M. M., Garbis-Berkvens, J. M., & Reuvers-Lodewijks, W. E. 1999, "Zwangerschapsuitkomsten na ecstasygebruik; 43 gevallen gevolgd door de Teratologie Informatie Service van het RIVM.", Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd., vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 27-31. [Abstract pdf]

FAQ 2 McElhatton, P. R., Bateman, D. N., Evans, C., Pughe, K. R., & Thomas, S. H. 1999, "Congenital anomalies after prenatal ecstasy exposure ", Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9188, pp. 1441-1442. [Abstract] [Full text pdf]

FAQ 3 Galineau, L., Belzung, C., Kodas, E., Bodard, S., Guilloteau, D., & Chalon, S. 2005, "Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) exposure induces long-term alterations in the dopaminergic and serotonergic functions in the rat", Brain Res.Dev.Brain Res., vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 165-176. [Abstract]

Nichols DE (1986). Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic hallucinogens. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens. J Psychoactive Drugs. 1986 Oct-Dec;18(4):305-13.